Ecology MCQs

Ecology MCQs

Answer these 200+ Ecology MCQs and see how sharp is your knowledge of Ecology. Scroll down and let's start!

1: ________ is not part of the hydrologic cycle.

A.   Water evaporating from a lake

B.   Water moving into creeks and streams following a rainstorm

C.   Calcium carbonate dissolving in soil water and groundwater

D.   Water infiltrating into the soil and bedrock

2: A population that is growing logistically __________.

A.   The carrying capacity of its environment

B.   Lower the survival rates of the parents

C.   Grows fastest at an intermediate population density

D.   By a logistic equation

3: According to the nonequilibrium model of community diversity, _____.

A.   Large and close to a mainland

B.   Ecosystem engineers

C.   Ecological niche

D.   Communities are constantly changing after being influenced by disturbances

E.   Trophic structure

4: An ecosystem ________.

A.   Is a regional grouping of plants, animals, and other biotic factors

B.   Is the total population of a specific kind of plant, animal, or microbe and all members of which do or potentially can interbreed and produce young

C.   Encompasses all the organisms and the physical and chemical environment within an area

D.   Is a grouping of plants and animals that interacts with one another in a way that causes the grouping to die

E.   Is a collection of interacting species living in a specific area

5: Converting a prairie to a farm field is an example of ________.

A.   Overharvesting

B.   Habitat loss

C.   Exotic species

D.   Climate change

6: Examples of defensive adaptations include all of the following except ________.

A.   Aposematic coloration

B.   Müllerian mimicry

C.   Mechanical defense

D.   Batesian mimicry

E.   Predation

7: Flying squirrels competing with each other for truffles is an example of ________.

A.   Interspecific competition

B.   High-energy carbohydrates

C.   Intraspecific competition

D.   Lynx and snowshoe hares

8: Food chains are an important part of an ecosystem. a food chain shows _____.

A.   Mutualisms between mammals are rare, more so when a primate isn't involved.

B.   Herbivorous organisms are near the bottom of the food chain.

C.   The part of the habitat's resources that a species uses

D.   Food chains are often complex and intertwined.

E.   Which organisms are producers and which are consumers

9: For an element to be considered a macronutrient _____.

A.   Plants synthesize their own organic molecules.

B.   It obtains nitrogen from their bodies that it cannot get from the soil

C.   It must be required in relatively large amounts

D.   Most serve mainly as cofactors of enzymes

10: Herbivores are _____.

A.   Primary consumers

B.   Secondary consumers

C.   Producers

D.   Decomposers

E.   Detritivores

11: In ________, the interaction between two species harms both of them.

A.   Coevolution

B.   Mutualism

C.   Symbiosis

D.   Competition

E.   Parasitism

12: In an ecosystem, the __________ is always greater than the __________.

A.   Cellular respiration only ... Disturbance is inevitable

B.   Energy used by primary consumers ... energy used by secondary consumers

C.   Disturbance is inevitable ... all return carbon dioxide to the atmosphere during cellular respiration.

D.   Grows fastest at an intermediate population density ... Disturbance is inevitable

13: In assessing whether a bird species is endangered, biologists might look at __________.

A.   Habitat loss

B.   Population fragmentation

C.   Reproductive reate

D.   Population size

E.   All of these

14: In queensland, australia, cactus moths (cactoblastis cactorum) ________.

A.   Biocontrol measures, crop rotation, and habitat diversification

B.   Effectively cleared non-native prickly pear cactus from rangeland

C.   Decreased organic soil losses while giving yields comparable to conventional farming

D.   Essential pollinators and predators

15: Leaching ________.

A.   Adds nutrients to soil naturally

B.   Is a common agricultural practice to improve soil

C.   Can help plant growth only if done properly

D.   Is caused by movement of water upward through soil from the water table

E.   Removes water-soluble nutrients from topsoil

16: Mineral nutrients _____.

A.   Enter plants via the stomata

B.   Include sugars

C.   Are organic nutrients

D.   Are not essential to plant growth

E.   Contribute little to a plant's overall mass

17: Most coltan ore is mined in ________, but purified and marketed in ________.

A.   The U.S.; Europe

B.   Canada ; the U.S.

C.   South America ; South Africa

D.   South Africa ; Congo

E.   Congo ; developed nations in North America and Europe

18: Most parasites have evolved to __________ their host

A.   Predator

B.   Weaken

C.   Exotic

D.   Climatic Events

19: Of the following, ________ best describes integrated pest management (ipm).

A.   Biocontrol measures, crop rotation, and habitat diversification

B.   Erosion, over-irrigation, and overgrazing

C.   Affected by rainfall, freezing and thawing

D.   Are techniques for conserving soil resources and fertility

20: Resource partitioning would be most likely to occur between _____.

A.   Sympatric populations of a predator and its prey.

B.   Sympatric populations of species with similar ecological niches.

C.   Sympatric populations of a flowering plant and its specialized insect pollinator

D.   Allopatric populations of the same animal species.

E.   Allopatric populations of species with similar ecological niches

21: Some researchers suggest that primates are able to do all of the following except __________.

A.   Master rules of syntax

B.   Learn sign language

C.   Create simple sentences

D.   Comprehend spoken words

22: Speciation _____.

A.   Occurs when a species dies out

B.   Is caused by reduced gene flow

C.   Happens when parasites evolve

D.   Is slowed by geographic isolation

23: Speciation requires ______

A.   Genetic isolation

B.   Geographic isolation

C.   Periods of rapid evolutionary change

D.   Long periods of time

24: Succession of communities occurs because _____.

A.   Resources in an area are limited

B.   Most populations have a limited life span and die, making room for others

C.   Climatic changes lead to reduced water availability

D.   Each existing community changes the environment

25: The phosphorus cycle lacks a(n) __________ component.

A.   Atmospheric

B.   Organic

C.   Mineral

D.   Aquatic

E.   Organic and gaseous

26: Dam removal in this country ________.

A.   Will probably continue because the environmental impacts of dams are reviewed periodically

B.   Will probably increase rapidly as we move to a more fossil-fuel-dependent society

C.   Is controversial because dams provide such good habitats for native species

D.   Provides many new jobs and opportunities and so is economically beneficial

E.   Will assist with our transition to more natural forms of renewable energy

27: Recent research indicates that the variation in solar output ________.

A.   Cities and states are setting their own programs for reducing greenhouse gas emissions

B.   Is less than any of the anthropogenic factors affecting climate change

C.   Is an international panel that reports on how climate change influences biomes and economies

D.   Molecules in the atmosphere are warmed by radiation from Earth and retain that heat

28: Succession is _______

A.   Harmful to ecosystems

B.   A natural recovery process

C.   Unnecessary for ecosystem recovery

D.   A one-time event

29: The type iii survivorship curve has _____.

A.   Group of individuals of the same age

B.   High initial death rates but later high survivorship (e.g., plants)

C.   Both of these

D.   None of these

30: When equilibrium is reached on an island, __________.

A.   Ecological disturbance is minimized

B.   Extinction will cease

C.   The rate of species immigration will equal the rate of species extinction

D.   The food web will be highly stable

31: Within an ecosystem, the _____ is always greater than the _____.

A.   Energy used by primary consumers … energy used by secondary consumers

B.   Biomass of producers … biomass of primary consumers

C.   Number of producers … number of primary consumers

D.   Biomass of secondary consumers … biomass of producers

32: Variations in allometric growth patterns demonstrate how _____.

A.   Chimpanzees are basically juvenile humans that have gained the ability to reproduce

B.   Relatively small genetic changes can have a major impact on phenotype

C.   Differences in the fetal skulls of chimpanzees and humans lead to very similar adult skulls

D.   Relatively large genetic changes can have a minor impact on phenotype

33: Of the following, ________ requires the least land to produce 1 kg of protein.

A.   Egg

B.   Milk

C.   Chicken

D.   Beef

34: If a predator is eliminated from an ecosystem its prey?s population will likely _______. .

A.   Increase

B.   Decrease

C.   Stay the same

D.   Change, but the direction cannot be predicted

35: A characteristic that is shared by snakes and birds is ________.

A.   Amniotic egg

B.   Amniotic fluid

C.   Leathery

36: _____ allows populations to adapt to the abiotic and biotic conditions where they live

A.   Reproduction

B.   Natural selection

C.   Competition

D.   Predation

37: _____ are secondary consumers

A.   Herbivores

B.   Plants

C.   Cows

D.   Carnivores

38: A biome is a large group of plants and animals living together in a specific _____.

A.   Habitat

B.   Population

C.   Community

D.   Climate

39: A cow eating grass is an example of a _____.

A.   Herbivory

B.   Predation

C.   Habitat destruction

D.   A keystone species

40: A niche specialist is ________.

A.   More likely to go extinct than a niche

B.   More likely to go extinct than a niche generalist

C.   More likely to go extinct than a specialist

41: An example of restoration ecology is ________.

A.   Cessation of mining or farming or causes of erosion

B.   Restricting livestock from riparian areas

C.   Removing toxic materials from soil or sediments

D.   All

42: Mushrooms, algae, and protozoa are all examples of ___________ cells...

A.   Protist.

B.   Plant.

C.   Fungal

43: Human impacts on biomes are best characterized by _______

A.   Increased fossil fuel usage

B.   Industrial pollution of landfills

C.   Interruption of natural biome processes

D.   Sewage contamination of groundwater

44: In captive breeding programs, organisms are bred with the intent to __________.

A.   Release them to non-native ecosystems

B.   Clone them

C.   Keep them in zoos

D.   Release them to the wild

45: Nitrogen fixing bacteria in the soil _____

A.   Convert atmospheric nitrogen to ammonia

B.   Plants synthesize their own organic molecules.

C.   Most serve mainly as cofactors of enzymes.

D.   Contribute little to a plant's overall mass

46: Which of the following, ________ requires the least land to produce 1 kg of protein.

A.   Beef

B.   Eggs

C.   Chicken

D.   Milk

E.   Pork

47: Species found in only one place on earth are called ________ species.

A.   Species richness

B.   Predation

C.   Endemic

D.   Both an herbivore and a primary consumer

48: Endemic species ________.

A.   Are generalist organisms

B.   Cause disease

C.   Are invasive species that cause extinction

D.   Have high rates of mutations that lead to large numbers of offspring species

E.   Are found only in one place on the planet

49: Most crops cannot grow in ________.

A.   Warm climates.

B.   Water logged soil.

C.   Soil containing good oxygen levels.

D.   Nutrient rich soil

50: "the sundew plant has to digest insects because __________.

A.   It must be required in relatively large amounts is a mixture of rock fragments, living organisms, and humus

B.   [ Topsoil is produced by the erosion of rock by living organisms and is rich in decomposing organic matter (humus).]

C.   It obtains nitrogen from their bodies that it cannot get from the soil( The sundew lives in nitrogen-poor soil and obtains its nitrogen from the digestion of insects.)

D.   None of these